In the exercise rehab world, the two big schools of thought are a progressive graded exercise model and a task specific motor control model. Much debate about this has been written. Interestingly, very few comparative studies have been done on the various types of injuries and conditions physiotherapists treat. Macedo et al 2011 divided 172 patients with non-specific low back pain into 2 groups and had them go through 2 different exercise rehabilitation programs. 2, 6 and 12 months post-intervention the individuals completed a questionnaire.
No measurable difference was found in pain, function, sleep quality or quantity, perceived disability, perceived change pre and post therapy, or any other metric used. This would indicate that either the testing was not sensitive or specific enough to the needs of the study or that getting low back pain patients to exercise is fine and the approach rarely matters.