Kimura et al 2010 used the SF-36 Health Status Survey (a standardized health status questionnaire measuring different health qualities) to determine if seniors in a health education class had different effects from a weightlifting class. The SF-36 was used to compare physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, emotional role, and mental health. Mental health improved significantly (p<0.05) compared to the education class. They also put the seniors on a pre/post reaction time computer based test. Those selected for the exercise group showed improvement in scores over the 12 weeks. Here again, we see that even in seniors, muscle is plastic and will change- but this is unsurprising . The fact that mental health had a measurable improvement compared to a health education class demonstrates the role exercise and recreational activities can play in regulating mood. The behavioral and hormonal effects of exercise can not be neglected when evaluating well-being. We know exercise is powerful enough to stop the effects of mild to moderate depression in youth and it has now been demonstrated that even in seniors, a measurable effect on mental health status occurs. Don’t neglect your training.